Quality Factor 3rd Wine Climate

Quality Factor 3rd Wine Climate

If we take a look at a world map, we note that the leading producers of quality wines have their wine regions located between parallels 30 ° and 50 °, ie, climate regions semitemperado Mediterranean type. 

This is explained by the fact that the grapes used in winemaking not adapt to extreme temperatures, ie, very cold winters and very hot summers. 

In addition, to perform satisfactorily its annual cycle, the vine needs low temperatures in winter to allow her to rest and gradually increase during vegetative cycle, accompanied by good sunshine. 

The vegetative cycle of the vine is composed of three phases: 

the – Hibernate – Occurs in winter – November to March in the northern hemisphere, and from May to August in the southern hemisphere – the period in which the plant hibernates. The cold temperature is welcome, but without exaggeration, and should not pass the 15 ° Celsius. 

b – Flowering – Occurs in spring – May to June in the northern hemisphere and from September to October in the southern hemisphere. During this period, the plant needs a lot of sun for the occurrence of maturation. When there are strong winds and frosts in late spring, they are extremely harmful to the production of good grapes. 

c – Fruiting – The fruiting takes place in the months of August and September in the northern hemisphere, and December and January in the southern hemisphere, when the sun and high temperatures are extremely desirable. Rains at the end of fruiting are feared because they can cause rotting of grapes.

Wine Grape Pinot Noir

Wine Grape Pinot Noir

Considered the great grape of Burgundy, Pinot Noir is a variety extremely delicate, suffering deeply with environmental changes, such as alternations of cold and heat, and is notoriously difficult to work after having been picked, since its shell breaks easily, releasing fruit juice. 

The emphasis is on both the advantage of planting it in cold climates as in making a rigorous clonal selection, since planting Clone wrong result in inappropriate places insipid wines. 

Even after fermentation, the wine made from the Pinot Noir is difficult to assess outside the barrel, even in the bottle, often varies, presenting a weak day and exuberant on the other. 

In general, Pinot Noir wine reach maturity 8 to 10, declining slightly thereafter. 

Besides being the classic grape of Burgundy, it also plays a role in Champagne, where it is pressed immediately after harvested to produce white juice. The Pinot Noir is practically the only ink cultivated in Alsace. In California, the Pinot Noir wines stood out in the late 80s and early 90s, and seem to have the chance to progress in the future. To substantially improve the quality, it is necessary not to vinify Pinot Noir Cabernet as if it were, should be planted vineyards in cooler climates and do not forget that the production should be small and controlled. 

Aromas and flavors: When young red fruits (raspberries, strawberries and cherries). In Burgundy, floral notes (violet), while in California and Australia, comes the roasted coffee (flavors “empireumáticos”). 

Mature, especially in Burgundy, remembers hunting, leather, licorice, black truffles, stable and “sous-bois”, a mixture of wet earth, mushrooms and decaying leaves.

Grape Wine Semillon: varieties and regions

Grape Wine Semillon: varieties and regions

Alone or accompanied, produces a wine that ages well. With Sauvignon Blanc, is the basis of Sauternes and most major dry wines of Graves and Pessac-Léognan, all very rich and remembering honey. The Sémillon grape is susceptible to attack by Botrytis cinerea, hence its use in the production of sweet wines. 

In Australia alone is employed to produce a full-bodied dry white wine. South Africa has played an important role, but had a significant decline in recent years. It is quite planted in Chile. 

Aromas and flavors: vary with the combinations with other grapes, but we can say that the most common are: grass, citrus, lanolin, honey and toast.

Main red varieties and white Vitis vinifera and the regions where they are produced. 
Variety TypeRegion 
Aligoté France (Burgundy), Russia 
Alvarinho Portugal (Vinho Verde) 
Barbera Italy (Piedmont), California 
Bonarda Italy (Piedmont, Emilia-Romagna) 
Cabernet Franc France (Bordeaux St. Emilion, Loire) 
Cabernet Sauvignon France (Bordeaux, Médoc, Graves), California, Chile, Australia, South Africa and other regions. 
Canaiolo Italy (Tuscany) 
Carignan France (Côtes du Rhône, Provence, Languedoc), Spain, Italy, California 
Carmenère France (Bordeaux), Chile 
Chardonnay France (Burgundy, Champagne), California, Chile, Australia, New Zealand 
Chasselas (Fendant) France (Alsace, Loire), Germany (Baden), Switzerland 
Chenin Blanc (Steen) France (Loire), California, South Africa 
Gamay France (Beaujolais) 
Gewürztraminer France (Alsace), Germany, Italy (North), California 
Grenache (Alicante, Garnacha, Cannonau) France (Côtes du Rhône, Provence, Languedoc), Sardinia, Spain (Rioja), Portugal, Calif. 
Grignolino Italy (Piedmont) 
Lambrusco Italy (Emilia-Romagna) 
Malbec (Côte France (Cahors), Argentina, Chile 
Malvasia (Malmsey) Mediterranean, Madeira 
Merlot France (Bordeaux: Pomerol, St Emilion), Italy (North) 
Müller Thurgau Germany 
Muscadelle France (Bordeaux) 
Muscat Mediterranean, France, Spain, Australia 
Nebbiolo Italy (Piemonte, Lombardia) 
Palomino Spain (Jerez) 
Petit Verdot France (Bordeaux) 
Petite Syrah France, California 
Pinot Blanc France (Burgundy, Champagne, Alsace), Germany, Italy (North), California, Chile 
Pinot Noir France (Burgundy, Champagne), Germany, California, Chile 
Riesling italics Italy (North), Eastern Europe 
Rhine Riesling Germany, France (Alsace), Austria, California, Chile 
Sangiovese (Sangioveto Italy (Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna) 
Sauvignon Blanc France (Bordeaux Loire), California, Chile, New Zealand 
Sémillon France (Bordeaux: Sauternes), California, Chile, Australia 
Syrah (Shiraz) France (Rhone, Provence, Languedoc), South Africa, Australia 
Silvaner Germany, France (Alsace), Italy (North), California 
Tempranillo Spain (Rioja), Portugal 
Touriga Nacional Portugal (Douro and Dão) 
Touriga Francesa Portugal (Douro) 
Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc, St. Émilion) Italy (Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Lombardia), France (Cognac, Provence) 
Vernaccia Italy (Liguria, Marche, Tuscany, Sardinia) 
Zinfandel California 
Vegetative cycle of the vine

Vegetative cycle of the vine

The vine is a plant hibernating, or require a period of absolute rest, of lethargy. During this period she yields to natural phenomena and retracts. Loses its leaves and falls into a kind of vegetable decrepitude. He is left with only the reserves accumulated during the growing season ended. With these reservations it must keep, and then rise again. 

In general the vines go dormant in winter. It is, in most cases, the appropriate moment – cold, lack of light and air; sleeping and expose yourself as little as possible. A timeout.

For two or three months vine await the moment in which the temperature will rise. Then, gradually begin to open. Enters the spring, and starts to open up and develop to form and these fruits grow. Summer (time of summer) assist the fruited vine vigorous and also will witness the moment of harvest and fruit drop temporões. Only, when the fruits fall, summer will already be watching from afar and who will be approaching the autumn, accompanied by the natural decrease of the temperature. The cycle will be closed again and the vine again, 

hibernate.

The cycle lasts about 130-140 days. It is counted from the pruning and the count is only interrupted when the vine begins to fructify. The species that have the number of days of the cycle below the average are called early and having the above are calls late.

Function Of The Different Parts Of The Vine

Function Of The Different Parts Of The Vine

Function Of The Branches Of The Vine

Also called sticks, branches are organs expansive vine. Fixing on it the leaves, flowers and subsequently the fruits. The branches of the vine are segmented by us, which is equivalent to spatially leaves potential. Have up the branch alternately, that is, every node present in a given first, followed by a second, opposite side. Also leaves with the same thing happens.

Function Gems Vine

The gems are embryonic organs that give rise to branches. Are arranged by the stem and, at a second level, by the branches. Are covered with protective scales and bloom during budding. Divided into vegetative buds and fruit or germ.

Gems germ. 

Gems germ are those that aroused result in fruitful branches. Characterized by being rounded and bulky.

Vegetative buds. 

The vegetative buds are smaller and pointed. Them derive the suckers that do not produce fruit or supply of poor quality.

Function Vine Leaves

The vine leaf area is large and its leaves are complete. Have limbo, sheath and petiole. The petiole is the part that league limbo – the body of the sheet – the branches. The leaves are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which the crude sap absorbed by the roots will be transformed into elaborated sap. The sap is drawn up a solution of water with organic materials.

Leaves, the sap will be forwarded to the rest of the plant through the vessels Liberians. On the sheet will remain only the reserve starch, which, with the emergence of the fruit will be diverted in part to him, and subsequently transformed into sugars in ripening.

Function Vine Flower

The flower is the reproductive organ of the vine. In the vine blossoms present in the form of clusters. Hundreds of flowers, which after selfed give rise to fruits. The vine is a hermaphrodite plant, ie it autofecunda. In their flowers are both male organ as female. There is therefore need for pollination so that the fruits are generated. Still cross-fertilization is possible and is self fertilization. Witness the hybrid varieties, which mostly are developed thanks to the interference of man. This type of pollination occurs when the flowers the vine is borne insects.

Function Of The Fruit Of The Vine

On the vine, the fruits – or berries – are presented in clusters. This grouping in the form of cluster is possible thanks a skeleton called rachis. In many species the clusters vary in shape, compactness (intensity of distress with which berries are arranged in the bunch) and size.

The rachis allows fruits or berries present themselves grouped in clusters.

The Function Of The Grape Skins

The film has a protective function. Involves the pulp and prevents natural phenomena acting directly on it. It is coated by a substance called waxy bloom. The bloom gives more strength to the film and reduces the possibility of cracking. 

Also it protects the skin of the fruit of excessive sunlight and contact with wind-borne microorganisms.

History Of Wine

History Of Wine

Origin Of The Word Wine

The wine comes from the Latin word, vinu, which in turn comes from vena, Hindu word meaning friend, loving, beloved. 

Many people may not know that meaning and some people consider wine as a companion.

No drink should be considered companion or loved one. The consumption of any alcoholic beverage to drown his sorrows is not recommended.

Wine is an alcoholic beverage and should be consumed in moderation enough.

Some attribute the culture of the vine the passage of man from his nomadic to sedentary state. Because they are laborious and difficult, vineyards demanded that the nomadic tribes showered up, giving rise to the first cities. The wine, beverage obtained 

by fermenting the juice of grapes, has a busy and extremely interesting history.

“Wine is a gift of nature, which is revealed in its fullness, if any effort, dedication and love.” Raoul Blodin, French winemaker

Definition Of Wine

The wine, by definition, is the product of the alcoholic fermentation of grape must. 

Unlike the old man, we know, since 1860 and thanks to Louis Pasteur, the wine is not the product of chance or a godsend, but that is produced by fermenting microorganisms. 

Fermentation occurs when the natural bark of ripe break, allowing the yeast to penetrate the fruit and triggering process. 

In winemaking, the grapes are crushed fresh suffering invasion of yeast, which mainly attack the fruit sugars, forming from them, ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Numerous other substances will form in the process according to the grape employed, the type of yeast and fermentation. 

The thick liquid formed by fruit juice, fragments of stems, the grape skins, seeds and pulp, after the fresh fruit is crushed, is what is called wort, which is the “raw material” of wine. 

When tasting the various wines we find a variety of flavors – from bush cut the stable, through coffee, berries and more – and flavors that can frustrate or delight the palate, this is due to the nearly 500 natural chemicals, including alcohols , sugars, acids, etc.. suffering a multitude of different combinations, producing a huge constellation of wines for the pleasure of those who relish. 

To ensure even more complexity to the manufacture of wine, and the factors called “chemical”, external agents such as climate and soil variation guarantee the impossibility of having two identical crops, even if originating from the same producer.

The Persian Legend About The Origin Of The Wine

A legend about the wine that seems curious is the Persian, reported by Omar Khayyam

Jamsheed was a Persian king at whose court the grapes were preserved in jars so they could be eaten out of season. On one occasion, one of the pitchers began to exhale a strange smell, and the grapes it contains foaming, so the kettle was put aside for anyone to poison. A young harem, suffering terrible headaches, decided to commit suicide by drinking “poison”, only that instead of causing his death, the brew brought peace and a sleep that gave him strength. The king, after hearing the story of young commanded to make a larger quantity of wine, so he and his court could take it.